Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that appears in a human body in late adolescence or early adulthood. While suffering from this disorder, the person interpret reality abnormally. People suffering with this mental disorder require lifelong treatment.It is characterized by-
- Hallucinations and other cognitive difficulties.
Some Facts about Schizophrenia:
- An estimated 1 percent of population is affected by
- Some of the symptoms are- Delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts.
- This mental disorder can be diagnosed only after other disease have been ruled out.
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What Schizophrenia actually is?
Schizophrenia generally occurs at the age of 16-30, and the male body tends to show the symptoms at a slightly younger age than females. In many cases, this mental disorder develops so slowly in the human body, that the person does not even get a hint of it having for so many years. But there are some cases also in which it strikes suddenly and develops very quickly.
Experts say that Schizophrenia is many illness masquerading as one and occurs to approximately 1 percent of the population.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia:
The people suffering from Schizophrenia require the help or rely on the care of the people who are fit as they are unable to hold a job or take care of themselves.
Many of them just deny from the fact that they are even suffering from any mental disorder and eventually refuse to take the treatment.
Some patients have clear symptoms while the case is not the same for all the patients. Some of them may seem fine until they start explaining of what they are really thinking. The signs and symptoms of Schizophrenia vary, depending on the individual. The 4 categories in which the symptoms are divided are-
1. Positive Symptoms-
It is also known as psychotic symptoms. For example-hallucinations, delusions.
2. Negative Symptoms-
These types of symptoms refer to the elements that have been taken away from an individual. For example- Lack of motivation, and absence of facial expression.
3. Cognitive Symptoms-
These affects a person’s ability of thinking or his thought They may be positive or negative symptoms. For example- Poor concentration, which is considered as a negative symptom.
4. Emotional Symptoms-
These are considered as negative symptoms. For example-blunted emotions.
List of some major Symptoms-
the patient gets false beliefs. They might feel that others are trying to control Or, they may think that they have extraordinary powers and abilities.
A person suffering with Schizophrenia may experience a lot of The people dealing with this mental disorder see, feel, smell things which are not even there and among them hearing voices is the most common one.
3. Thought Disorder-
The individual may jump from one subject or topic to another for no logical reason.
Types of Schizophrenia–
There are sub-types of Schizophrenia–
- Paranoid Schizophrenia
- Disorganized Schizophrenia
- Catatonic Schizophrenia
- Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
- Residual Schizophrenia
In 2013, the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th edition (DSM-V) changed the method of classification and grouped them into one name I.e. Schizophrenia.
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Causes of Schizophrenia:
Experts believe that there are many factors that are responsible for the cause of Schizophrenia.There are many evidences that suggest that genetic and environmental factors which act together as the cause of this Mental disease.Below are some factors that are suspected to be the cause of Schizophrenia-
If there no history in the family then the chances of catching this mental disease reduces to less than 1 percent. But, if any of the parent has been diagnosed then the risk of having this mental disease increases by 10 percent.
Chemical imbalance in the brain-
Experts say that the imbalance of dopamine and neurotransmitter is involved as the cause of Schizophrenia. There are some other neurotransmitters also, such as serotonin, ay also be involved as a cause for this mental disease.
There are no evidences that indicate the family relationships as the cause of Schizophrenia, however, there are some patients who believe that family tensions trigger the relapses.
Many suspect traumas before birth and viral infections may contribute to the trigger of this mental disease. Although there are no proofs of this as a cause also but, it is suspected.
Stressful experiences may precede to the development of Schizophrenia. People dealing with this mental disease become bad-tempered, unfocused and anxious. This habit of the patient might lead to relationship problems, divorces, and unemployment.
Therefore, it is very difficult to figure out whether Schizophrenia causes stresses or it is the result of them.
Drugs for Schizophrenia Treatment:
Marijuana and LSD are very well known for the cause of Schizophrenia. For the people suffering from psychotic diseases such as Schizophrenia, usage of cannabis may make the mental illness worse.
Treatment of Schizophrenia–
Treatment can help to relieve from many of the symptoms of Schizophrenia. But, the majority of the patients have to cope with this mental disorder throughout their life. It cannot be completely cured from a human body.
According to the scientist, the most effective treatment of this mental disease is the combination of-
- Psychological Counselling
- Self-help resources
Here are some most common Schizophrenia medications-
1. Risperidone (Risperdal)-
Less sedative than any other typical anti-psychotic. There are some possible side-effects also, such as Diabetes, weight gain. But are less likely to happen if compared with clozapine.
2. Olanzapine (Zyprexa)-
It may improve negative symptoms. The risks of weight gain and developing diabetes are significant.
3. Quetiapine (Seroquel)-
with the use of this medication, the risks of diabetes and weight gain is lower than the risks in Risperidone and Olanzapine.
4. Ziprasidone (Geodon)-
The risk of weight gain and diabetes is lower than any other But it may generate the risk of Cardiac arrhythmia.
5. Clozapine (Clozaril)-
It has been proved to be effective for the patients who are resistant to It also lowers the suicidal behaviors in the patients suffering from this mental disease.
It is an antipsychotic used to treat Schizophrenia. It is well known for its long-lasting effects (weeks).
The patients must continue taking proper medications even after the symptoms are gone so as to avoid further arrival of the same symptoms back and have a bad effect to their body. When the person experiences Schizophrenia symptoms for the first time, it may be very unpleasant. They may take a long to recover, which can be a lonely experience. The only social requirement is that the patient should get receive the full support of his/her family and friends and do not have to face denial from anywhere.
Schizophrenia Diagnosis and Tests-
The diagnosis of this mental disease can be reached or achieved by clearly observing all the actions of the person who is suspected to be suffering from Schizophrenia. If it is detected by the doctor about that the person is dealing with this mental disease, then they will need to know all the past medications and the medical and psychiatric history of the patient.There are certain tests for Schizophrenia, such as-
In many cases where usage of any kind of drug may be factor of illness, then a blood test may be recommended by the doctor. It may also be used to exclude the physical cause of illness.
2. Imaging Studies-
The problems in the structure of the brain and the tumors are ruled out.
3. Psychological evaluation-
The specialist monitors the patient’s mental ability to respond to the surrounding situations and by asking about the thoughts, moods, suicidal traits, potential for violence, hallucinations etc.
Schizophrenia Diagnosis Criteria-
The patients must meet the criteria marked by the DSM i.e. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (An American Psychiatric Association).The patient must have at least two of the following typical symptoms:
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- Disorganized speech
- Negative symptoms that are present since last 4 weeks.
- Experience the considerable impairment to attend the school, carry out the work load, or everyday task.
- Have the symptoms that never left the patient for more than 6 months.
Therefore, Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that cannot be fully treated but can be diagnosed so that the patient may get relief from various symptoms at least for some time. The only criteria being that the patient should not stop taking the proper medications even if the symptoms have gone.
A person dealing with this mental disease may interpret reality abnormally. The person may have the symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions etc. which is common in Schizophrenia patients. Therefore, by using proper medications as mentioned above and with proper care the patient suffering from this mental disease can be relieved.
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